A brief introduction of Armenia and Yerevan

We hope to receive for the 15th ICHCST researchers from various continents for this event, which will be held in Armenia and South Western and Central Asia (Eastern Europe) for the first time. (Crossroad of civilizations).

The Republic of Armenia is a mountainous country, situated in the south of Transcaucasia, between the Black and Caspian Seas. To the north and east are Georgia and Azerbaijan, while its neighbors to the west and south are Turkey and Iran. Its territory is 29,800 square km and the population is 3 million. Most of its territory lies 1,000 metres to 2,500 metres above sea level. Armenia’s highest mountain is Aragatz (4,090 m or 13,419 ft above sea level) whose jagged summit is snow-capped all year round except for a short period in late summer. The lowest point, along Debed river, is 390 m or 1,280 ft. The greatest extent is 360 km. More than 100 mountain lakes number in Armenia. Lake Sevan, nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, at 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level. Gaining independence in 1991, Armenia has undergone fast economic and political changes and is considered to be one of the most stable among all former Soviet Union countries.

Armenia is an ancient land with about 3,000 years history. It has been inhabited since the early Stone Age. Ancient Armenia was one of the largest states in the Middle East and was often pitted against Rome and Persia. The Biblical mountain Ararat is seen very picturesque from Yerevan. Many thousands of cultural monuments have been preserved in the territory of Armenia: from stone-age buildings to medieval temples and other magnificent creations. There are some 40,000 historical and architectural monuments in Armenia: ancient churches, monasteries, castles, fortresses, cross-stones (which are typical only for this district) etc. Armenia is justly called a museum in the open air.

Armenia is also a country of ancient science. Mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and other sciences were developed in ancient and middle ages. At the beginning of the 20th century some American and European scientists found that just in this area in the foot of Masis (Ararat), 4800 years ago, the known division of starry sky to constellations has come to its final form. Armenian alphabet was created in 405 A.D. In modern Armenia there are more than 70 research institutes having a staff of some 4,000 researchers.

At the very beginning of the IV century, in the time of king Trdat III, an important historical event took place in the life of the Armenian people: the Christianity was adopted in Armenia in 301 A.D. Armenia is the first country in the world which adopted Christianity as a state religion. A great celebration of its 1700th anniversary took place in 2001, and a lot of guests visited Armenia from dozens of countries, including the Pope and many other churches heads.

Armenian wines and cognac are very famous. Wine making is part of the Armenian culture. The Armenian brandy (cognac) and various wines are of the highest quality. The generous sun of the Ararat Valley, the fertile land and good water quality give the Armenian brandy its gold color and extraordinary taste.

Fruits and vegetables, as well as national dishes are famous, too. Armenian water is known as one of the best in the world. Armenia is rich in mineral waters known worldwide. Mineral waters of Armenia have a healing effect for kidney, liver, gall bladder and intestinal diseases. In addition, mineral water baths are recommended for anomalies of nervous and supportive-protective systems. The mineral water brands of Armenia are: “Jermuk”, “Bjni”, “Arzni”, “Dilijan” and others. Near the springs of these mineral waters, health resorts are established the water being used for treatment of different diseases.

Armenian is the official language of Armenia.

The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36°C (72 and 97°F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while falls are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage. Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between -10 and -5°C (14 and 23°F).

Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia, is situated in the Ararat Valley, among the mountains at an altitude of 950 to 1,300 metres above sea level on the river Hrazdan. It has a population of about 1.1 million (2019 estimates), making up to 36% of the total population of Armenia. Yerevan is one of the oldest cities in the world. 2800 years have passed since the foundation of this city. The name of the city of Yerevan goes back to the period of Urartu and originates from the name "Erebuni"; the name “Erebuni” has been transformed to “Yerevan”. The city is situated at the heart of the Armenian Highland within historic Armenia Major. The upper part of the city is surrounded with mountains on three sides while it descends to the banks of the river Hrazdan at the south. Hrazdan divides Yerevan into two parts through a picturesque canyon.

Yerevan is home to dozens of museums, art galleries, and libraries. The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of Armenia, the History Museum of Armenia, the Cafesjian Museum of Art, the Matenadaran library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian Genocide museum. Others include the Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales. The city is home to many cinema halls.

The Yerevan Opera and Ballet Theatre consists of two concert halls: Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the hall of the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet named after Alexander Spendiarian. Numerous cultural centres and halls allow the audience to enjoy a multitude of various shows and performances, such as the modern Complex named after Karen Demirchyan. There is a number of important theatres.

Numerous places in Yerevan are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade complex, the ruins of the Urartian city of Erebuni (Arin Berd), the historical site of Karmir Blur (Teishebaini), etc.

The location of Yerevan itself is an inspiring factor for the foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the biblical mount of Ararat, as the city lies on the feet of the mountain forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre.

There are plenty of historical sites, churches and citadels in areas and regions surrounding the city of Yerevan, such as the Garni Temple, Zvartnots Cathedral, and Khor Virap, etc.